Fought on July 1 near the banks of the James River, within site of the spires of
Richmond, this battle saw Confederate infantrymen attempt to take Union artillery
emplacements, which held an almost unassailable position atop Malvern Hill. Although
Federal troops were successful in beating back the Confederate charge, McClellan
ordered a "change of base" (better known as a "retreat") immediately following the
battle, and Richmond remained in Confederate hands until 1865.